By M. Bacon
This e-book introduces geophysicists and geologists to the means of analyzing three-D seismic info. the themes it covers contain simple structural interpretation and map-making; using three-D visualization equipment; interpretation of seismic amplitudes; the iteration and use of AVO and acoustic impedance datasets; and time-lapse seismic mapping. Written by means of specialist geophysicists with a long time of operating adventure within the oil undefined, the e-book might be imperative for graduate scholars, researchers, and new entrants into the petroleum undefined.
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Extra resources for 3-D Seismic Interpretation
K notch filter to remove pattem causedby the acquisition 25. FXY deconvolution 26. 5 m bin grid 27. g. ) 28. One pass steep dip 3-D time migration (using time and spatially varying velocity field) 29. Zero-phaseconversionby matching to wells 30. Spectralequalisation 31. Bandpasslilter 32. Residualscaling Fig. 21 Typical 3-D processingsequence. that was createdby the sourceand convertsit to a more compactform. Sucha sourcesignalis undesirablesinceevery reflectionwould be followed by a smallerrepetitionof itself.
Step28 is the final, high-fidelity migration processusing the spatialvarying velocity field from step20. It is usual not to use the raw velocitiesas originally picked, but ratherto usevelocitiesthat havebeensmoothedboth spatiallyandin time. The resultof 3-D migrationis oftenvery impressivecomparedto 2-D migration. The reasonis simple:3-D migrationplacesthe energycorrecdyin a three-dimensional sense,whereas2-D migrationcan only do this in the direction the data were shot; any complexity perpendicularto the plane of the 2-D sectionremainsunresolved.
Yilmaz ( 1987)gives a detailedbut very readableaccountcoveringall aspectsof dataprocessing. Indeed, any processthattreatstracesindividually,suchasstatisticaldeconvolution, gainrecovery,tracemuting andfrequencyfiltering,is appliedin an identicalmannerin 3-D and in 2-D. Someof the otherprocesses are appliedin a 2-D sense,alonglinesratherthan acrossthe 3-D datavolume. An imporlantaspectof 3-D dataprocessingis to ensurespatialconsistencyof parameters suchasthe velocity field. We will briefly run throughall the steps,but thosethat are significantlydifferentfrom 2-D processingare highlightedin bold andwill be discussedin moredetail.
3-D Seismic Interpretation by M. Bacon