By C. G. Lyons, S. McLintock, Nora H. Lumb

ISBN-10: 0080106560

ISBN-13: 9780080106564

A Concise Text-Book of natural Chemistry is a convenient consultant for chemistry scholars getting ready for complex point certificate. the character of natural chemistry, in comparison with that of inorganic chemistry, is essentially the chemistry of carbon. The booklet specializes in the preparations and adjustments of the atoms contained in the carbon molecules. The molecular formulation of natural compounds are consequently studied, together with alkanes and their derivatives referred to as aliphatic or fatty acids, in addition to the hydrocarbons of the benzene sequence and derivatives often called the fragrant compounds. The aliphatic amines as derivatives of ammonia as a result of the substitution of the hydrogen atoms through alkyl teams are defined. The formulation for methane, even supposing at the present is handy for basic reasons, is proven to be now not a real consultant of the particular association within which 4 H radicals are grouped round the carbon atom. Castor oil, linseed, and different drying oils also are tested by way of their glyceride (of different lengthy chain unsaturated acids) content material. Carbohydrates, divided as monosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycosides, are mentioned as to their empirical composition. the various tools and reagents for synthesizing natural compounds are defined, utilizing the straightforward aliphatic natural compounds to illustrate. The fragrant sequence of natural compounds, comparable to the benzene sequence of hydrocarbons, and the fragrant sulfonic acids, phenols, and ethers are then analyzed. This ebook is acceptable for college students of natural chemistry and for these getting ready for checks within the common certificates of schooling and for the normal nationwide certificates. Readers with regards to agricultural, scientific, pharmaceutical, and technological and technical classes can locate this consultant correct.

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54 A CONCISE TEXT-BOOK O F O R G A N I C C H E M I S T R Y 2C2H4 + O 2 = 2 ;o C H / C H g i C H g + HOCl - > C H a C l C H a O H — ^ ^ \ + HCl CH2/ CH^v CHoOH I ; o + H P = II I TT ^ CHg/ CH2OH Glycerol {or glycerin, CHaOH-CHOH-CHgOH) This is the most important representative of the class of trihydric alcohols. It can be prepared by suitable modifications of the general methods for monohydric alcohols, but it is obtained on a large scale from fats and fatty oils, which are the esters of glycerol and certain organic acids.

Ethyl chloride is prepared from ethyl alcohol and phosphorus penta­ chloride; ethyl bromide using phosphorus tribromide or a mixture of red phosphorus and bromine; ethyl iodide by adding iodine to red phosphorus in the presence of the alcohol. C2H5OH + PCI5 3C2H5OH + P B r 3 = C2H5CI + HCl + POCI3 SCgHsBr + H3PO3 (2) From ethylenic or acetylenic hydrocarbons, by addition of halogens or hydrogen halides. C2H4 + HI = C2H5l C2H2 + 2CI2 = C2H2CI4 (ethyl iodide) (tetrachloroethane) (3) From saturated hydrocarbons, by substitution reactions with chlorine or bromine.

R H \ / R / C R' \ \ or OH R' / CHOH A tertiary alcohol (functional group -^COH) contains a carbon atom which is linked to three alkyl groups and to the hydroxyl group. R' R' R \ C / R" / \ \ R'—COH / OH R'" The oxidation of alcohols may be interpreted as proceeding by the conversion of a C — Η linkage to a C — O H linkage. The initial product is unstable since it is a general rule that two hydroxyl groups attached to the same carbon atom do not form a stable system. e. a carbon atom linked to an oxygen atom by a double bond.

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A Concise Text-book of Organic Chemistry by C. G. Lyons, S. McLintock, Nora H. Lumb

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