By Kenneth F. Kitchell Jr.
The old Greeks and Romans lived in an international teeming with animals. Animals have been essential to historical trade, struggle, love, literature and artwork. contained in the urban they have been stumbled on as pets, pests, and parasites. they can be sacred, sacrificed, liminal, staff, or intruders from the wild. past town domesticated animals have been herded and bred for revenue and wild animals have been searched for excitement and achieve alike. experts like Aristotle, Aelian, Pliny and Seneca studied their anatomy and behaviour. Geographers and tourists defined new lands by way of their animals. Animals are to be obvious on each attainable inventive medium, woven into fabric and inlaid into furnishings. they're the topic of proverbs, oaths and goals. Magicians, physicians and fanatics grew to become to animals and their elements for his or her crafts. They paraded prior to kings, inhabited palaces, and entertained the negative within the enviornment. particularly actually, animals pervaded the traditional international from A-Z.
In entries starting from brief to lengthy, Kenneth Kitchell deals perception into this typically ignored international, overlaying consultant and fascinating examples of mammals, reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates. common animals reminiscent of the cow, puppy, fox and donkey are taken care of in addition to extra unique animals resembling the babirussa, pangolin, and dugong. The proof adduced levels from Minoan instances to the past due Roman Empire and is taken from archaeology, historic authors, inscriptions, papyri, cash, mosaics and all different inventive media. every time attainable reasoned identifications are given for old animal names and the realities in the back of animal lore are introduced forth. Why did the ancients imagine hippopotamuses practiced blood letting on themselves? How do you seize a monkey? Why have been hyenas regarded as hermaphroditic? was once there rather a vampire moth? Entries are observed through complete citations to historical authors and an in depth bibliography.
Of use to Classics scholars and students, yet written in a method designed to interact a person drawn to Greco-Roman antiquity, Animals within the historical international from A to Z finds the level and significance of the animal international to the traditional Greeks and Romans. It solutions many questions, asks a number of extra, and seeks to stimulate extra study during this vital box.
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Extra resources for Animals in the Ancient World from A to Z
The bat is a nocturnal mammal of the order Chiroptera (“handwing”). While some mammals can glide for long distances, only the bat has true flight. ). They are found from rainforests to deserts, and live on a wide variety of foods ranging from insects to fruits, reptiles, small fish, and, notoriously, blood. They readily take up their dwelling with humans. This interaction is not necessarily benign as bats can help to spread diseases such as rabies and histoplasmosis, a lung disease. On the other hand, the insectivorous bats play a major role in controlling insect populations.
37, Pliny himself speaks of large snakes draining milk from bubali, which Bostock and Riley (ad loc. 262) are probably correct in taking as a bovid. 222 Pliny simply says its blood barely coagulates, which means it is not that of a bull (Kitchell and Parker) but does not help to further identify it. 4) puts them in the area of Syria he may have either wild bison/ oxen or an antelope in mind. Martial (De Spect. 4) notes that a bubalus fought alongside a vison in the games. The context allows of no clear identification, but slightly favors a bigger, stronger animal (perhaps an aurochs).
Arist. Hist. an. 502a17–18) Barbary ape (Macaca sylvanus, McDermott, 55f. and passim). ). In antiquity it was certainly found in northern Africa and was known to Phoenician and Greek settlers in the West. 193) where tribes _near Tunis are said to eat apes. The pithe kos described in great detail by Aristotle is a barbary ape according to McDermott, and D’Arcy Thompson _ and Peck routinely translate pithe kos as ape and _ khbo~ (ke bos) as monkey. The Pithecousae islands were so called because of the freedom given to the apes there – the animals were protected by law and lived with humans.
Animals in the Ancient World from A to Z by Kenneth F. Kitchell Jr.